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The automatic transmission in the car

An automatic transmission is a gearbox in the car, which performs the gearshifts fully automatically. The advantage of this is that no clutch has to be installed and the pedals can be operated with only one foot.


How the automatic transmission works

Normal automatic transmissions are usually so-called converter transmissions. They have a reverse (R), an idle (N), a parking position (P), and various forwards, which can be called automatically via the shift position Drive (D). In addition, it is possible to select the individual gears manually - this is particularly useful with older converter transmissions, since these tend to be frequent gear changes at high gradients.
The main components of such an automatic transmission are the so-called converter (torque converter), as well as the planetary gearboxes, by means of which the transmission is finally realized with lamellar clutches. Converter transmissions usually have between four and eight switching stages. The right gear is selected by a logic link to the control unit and depends on the speed, the speed and the position of the accelerator pedal. If, for example, an overtaking operation is to be carried out, much gas is supplied. The automatic transmission now shifts into the gear that provides the best acceleration.


Typical defects of an automatic transmission

The converter gearbox is considered to be extremely robust. Damage can often be attributed to improper operation, a lack of maintenance or material defects. If, for example, the regular oil change is neglected, greater friction occurs. As a result, both bicycles and bearings can be seriously damaged.
Some automatic transmissions have weak points that can cause early repairs. If the materials for the components are chosen incorrectly, it can sometimes lead to failures. This means that individual gears can no longer be selected or a change in the torque occurs.


Repair and maintenance

If an automatic transmission is damaged, there are several ways to fix it. If it is a defect of individual components, a repair is possible. In the case of a complete failure of the automatic transmission, one can either resort to a favorable exchange gear or a new component. New automatic transmissions can cost up to 6,000 euros, depending on the type and number of gears.
To avoid damage to the transmission in general, a change of gear oil should be performed regularly. When this must take place, as a rule in the service booklets of the manufacturers.

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